The following are some of the accessories of ceramic tiles.
- Fastening elements
- Thermal insulation
- Waterproof barriers
- Vapour barriers
- Materials for abutments
- Elements to increase roof ventilation
- Elements to increase roof lighting
- Utility hooks
Fastening materials are used to join tiles and ceramic accessories to the base element to avoid the strength of atmospheric agents and animals from causing movement.
The most common fastening elements are:
- Nails: Made in treated metal to avoid corrosion and used to fasten tiles and accessories to battens.
- Screws: A threaded element made in treated metal to avoid corrosion and used to fasten tiles and accessories to battens. They should be self-drilling. The diameter and length will correspond to the holes provided for this purpose in the tiles, and the thread should be adapted to the batten material.
- Clip, hook or staple: A metal element used to fasten the tile or accessories to battens.
- Mortar: It is recommended to use mixed mortar M-2.5b (cement, lime and sand), at a measure of (1:2:10) or water-repellent mortar M-2.5, defined in Standards UNE-EN 998-2 and UNE-ENV 1996-1-1, Other richer mortars should not be used as they could cause cracks in the tiles. The minimum essential amount of mortar should be used.
- Adhesives, silicones and foam: These should be used following the instructions of the manufacturer, who should ensure the adherence, durability and compatibility with ceramic tiles and their special parts.
Thermal insulation reduces heat flow through the roof. It should be chosen bearing in mind the characteristics determined in the phases of the project and execution.
The choice of insulation and its thickness should be made following current regulations. It is also necessary to do a study on the temperature gradient and the most extreme exterior and interior conditions.
Extruded polystyrene, fibre glass panels etc can be used as thermal insulation.
Thermal insulation should never be applied directly on the inside face of the tile.
Gutters are used to collect and eliminate water draining through the gables.
The characteristics of elements used in metal gutters, together with their tolerances and dimensional requirements are indicated in Standard UNE-EN 612.
Waterproofing is an adaptable element with mechanical resistance to water and temperature changes that enable them to function as sealed membrane. The mechanical and chemical properties in relation to other materials used in the roof, should be considered.
Waterproofing will be used on those points in the roof where tiles and special ceramic parts cannot be relied on, such as:
- Abutments with parapets, front or side enclosures, chimneys, windows, valleys, etc.
- On subroof panels to guarantee the watertightness of the roof when the slope is less than the minimum.
To ensure waterproofing, it is advisable to use a double batten (horizontal and vertical) and place the membrane to form valleys for the evacuation of water.
Vapour barriers is an adaptable element with properties that enable them to be used as sealed membrane to continuous water vapour. Its use is associated with thermal insulation, it is always placed on the warm side of the insulation (side with greater vapour pressure), both if it is located on the subroof panel or under it.
Materials used as vapour barriers should have properties to guarantee sealing of water vapour, be resistant to humidity and compatible to the other materials used in the roof, avoiding both interstitial and superficial condensation.
Materials for abutments:
Zinc, copper, etc. sheeting is used to finish abutments. Abutments with mortar painted using chlorine rubber, organic waterproof bands, bituminous or plastic products are not recommended owing to their reduced durability and high maintenance.
They should have suitable mechanical resistance and durability properties against atmospheric attacks. If sheets of these materials are used, the minimum overlaps indicated by each manufacturer should be respected.
A metal or galvanized plate element used to finish abutments with facing walls.
Malleable waterproof bands:
Flexible waterproof bands to adapt to the curves of the tiles to finish abutments.
Elements to ventilate the roof.
- Bird barrier:
This part, in the shape of a comb, enables ventilation through the eave, stops birds or rodents from entering under the tiles, and it is also a support for the tiles, lifting them and avoiding pitching. These battens are usually made in plastic and can have lower pins for placing the gutter clamps.
Fig.1 - Bird barrier
- Rib and hip finish:
This element is made of a perforated metal profile and two side bibs that are assembled on the two gables and which are usually made of zinc, lead or plastic. This part provides the correct ventilation of the roof through the ridge or hip line, and also stops the entry of birds, rodents or other foreign objects. In cases of works carried out when dry, the parts are fastened with clips or staples.
Fig.2 - Rib and hip finish
Elements to benefit inside lighting
These elements include translucent tiles, windows or skylights which are placed on the plane of the roof and light the habitable spaces underneath.
- Translucent tile:
This element is made of glass or plastic with the same or multiple dimensions of the tile. It is used to light spaces under the roof.
- Skylight or window for roofs:
A building element assembled to close a hollow made in the roof and for lighting, ventilation and roof access purposes. The system is sealed by waterproof zinc, lead or plastic bibs that are moulded to the tiles, and should be installed following the specifications of each manufacturer.
Any element through which light can pass through. Sealing should be ensured once it has been installed.
Utility hooks enable bars for operators to be anchored to the structure in the ridge line.
They should meet Standard UNE-EN-517.